A product manager has many jobs, but one is most important: she must ensure her team delivers the right product, to the right customer, at the right time.
While her entire team can and should help, this job ultimately falls to the product manager. A designer may create an amazingly simple and intuitive user interface, but if it’s not productized for the right customer, it won’t get used. A developer architect may design a scalable, high-performance architecture, but if it’s something that ships two years too late, it won’t matter. A QA engineer may develop automation to ensure the product’s features are infallible, but if the customer doesn’t care about those features, it doesn’t matter.
Product managers need to clearly identify and describe the customer, understand his problems and goals deeply, and make sure the product is focused squarely on him.
In 1992, Pepsi launched Crystal Pepsi, a cola that lacked caramel color. Pepsi told customers the product’s clear appearance reflected purity and health. Customers didn’t want a health-oriented soda from Pepsi; they expected a cola that was dark in appearance, and they expected a product that looked so different than regular Pepsi to have a different taste. Crystal Pepsi delivered neither.
Also in 1992, McDonald’s launched the Arch Deluxe, a hamburger targeted at adult customers who valued more sophisticated ingredients. It was higher-priced and had more calories than McDonald’s other hamburgers. However, it was quite similar to their existing products; the only real differentiators were a round piece of peppered bacon and a mustard-mayonnaise sauce. Customers didn’t care for a burger that tasted like a McDonald’s bacon cheeseburger but cost more.
Product managers must know when it makes sense to deliver a product. This often translates to a question of technology and market maturity. Is the technology you are using ready to become a product? Does it make sense to enter the market with your product now?
Sometimes a technology isn’t quite ready. Microsoft’s Tablet PC came out in 2002, 8 years before the release of the iPad. The devices were bulky, battery life wasn’t great, and the pen input wasn’t very accurate. Microsoft’s SPOT watch came out in 2004, about a decade before smartwatches became mainstream. The FM-based devices showed you sports scores and weather reports but weren’t very interactive. Apple’s Newton Messagepad came out in 1993, but its handwriting recognition was so bad that customers quickly abandoned it.
Sometimes a market is crowded, and it’s hard to compete with established products. HP’s Touchpad launched in 2011. It cost about as much as an iPad, and did some of the same things as an iPad. But, its lack of differentiation from iPads led to its discontinuation 49 days after launch.
Once you identify the right customer and the right time, it’s still easy to build the wrong product. Which features do you build? How do you position the product?
The answer is usually to test a product as quickly and cheaply as possible. Minimum viable products (MVPs) are useful because they tradeoff completeness for data, and teach you things that are hard to know in advance, such as how customers actually use a product. But, even before you build an MVP, you can test ideas with usability studies and interactive prototypes. These are quicker and cheaper than building an MVP, and can give you a surprising amount of information.
Doing the job
To find the right customer, talk to lots of them. Understand their problems, goals, and aspirations. To find the right time, study your market. Understand your competitors, and understand how your product will fit into (or disrupt) the market. To find the right product, test your ideas early, and deliver an MVP quickly to get data.
And, most importantly, make sure you’re transparent with this job. Bring your team along for the ride. It does your team no good if you’re the only one that can answer why your product is the right product, for the right customer, at the right time.